Photo 15: LBBG sub-adult, October 13 2001, Westkapelle, the Netherlands. 

This sub-adult is probably older than 3cy, although it lacks the obvious p10 mirror in the old outer primary. Nevertheless, with p10 still present by mid-October (late primary moult) and very pronounced primary tips at p5 and p6, 3cy LBBG may well be excluded. Furthermore, note the old inner secondary just visible beneath the lowest tertial. Although abraded, the white tip is clearly visible and suggests an adult-like old feather; another indication for older immatures. In the coverts and scapulars, old feathers appear all-brown and there are no indications for second generation feathers. Probably this sub-adult is in 4cy.